Glossary

Sanguine: A reddish-brown chalk that includes ferric oxide, used in drawing.

Sculpture: The art of carving, cutting or hewing stone, wood or other materials, or wax to create images in three-dimensional form or in relief.

Scumble: A thin coating of semi-opaque colour applied on painting or drawing to soften the lines and colours and create a hazy effect.

Sepia: A brown pigment used in drawing, originally prepared from a black juice secreted by certain glands of the cuttlefish.

Sfumato: The gradual blending of one area of colour into another without a sharp outline, as shown in the work of Leonardo da Vinci.

Sgraffito: A technique for creating a design by cutting lines into pottery, plaster or stucco to reveal a different layer of colour below.

Shade: Term for a colour darkened with black.

Silk Screen Painting: A method of printing similar to stenciling, in which a fine mesh of silks covered with an impermeable coating for areas where colour is not to be allowed through and without a coating where colour is to show.

Silverpoint: A drawing method using a piece of metal, usually silver wire, drawn on a ground prepared with Chinese white, sometimes with pigment added.

Sinopia: A red-brown chalk used for marking-out frescoes; also the preliminary drawing itself.

Size: Material applied to a surface as a penetrating sealer, to alter or lessen its absorbency and isolate it from subsequent coatings.

Sketch: A preliminary drawing made by artist to established points of composition, scale etc.

Squaring Up: A method for transferring an image to a larger or smaller format.

Still Life: A drawing or painting, which depicts inanimate object, such as bowl of fruit or a vase of flowers.

Stippling: The technique of painting, drawing or engraving using dots rather than lines.

School in art: A group of artists who hold similar principles and work in similar style.

Stretcher: A wooden chassis for textile supports that has expandable corners.

Study: A detailed drawing or painting made of one or more parts of a final composition, but not the whole work.

Surrealism: A style of painting and drawing characterized by a dreamy or fantastic quality.  The surrealist movement began in France in the 1920s and 1930s and was inspired by the dream theories of Sigmund Freud and by the literature and poetry of Rimbaud and Baudelaire.

Sapphire: A form of the mineral, corundum, that comes in every color except red.  Sapphires and rubies are the second hardest minerals, (diamonds are the hardest).  Sapphire is the birthstone of September and the traditional gift for the 5th, 23rd and 45th wedding anniversaries.

Sapphire Crystal: A timepiece crystal that is crafted of natural or lab-created sapphire, the second hardest mineral on the Moh's Scale of Hardness (diamonds are the hardest).

Satin Finish: Similar to a brushed-finish, a satin-finish adds texture with small grooves in the metal's surface.  This reduces the metal's reflectivity and adds a desirable soft sheen.

Scintillation: The sparkle or flash emitted by diamonds when they are moved under light.

Screw Back: Screw backs are typically used for diamond earrings.  This secure backing features small metal backs that screw onto the post.

Silver (Metal): A type of metal used for jewelry.  Silver is often combined with other metals to increase its strength.  Sterling silver consists of 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy.

Slide: A piece of jewelry that slides onto an omega chain and acts as the centerpiece.

Snake Chain: The look of this chain is similar to the body of a snake as thin bands of metal are closely secured together.

Snap-Lock Clasp: Very popular in hoop earrings, this back has a hinged piece of metal that goes through the ear and snaps into a latch on the opposite side of the earring.

Solitaire: Rings, earrings or necklaces that feature a single diamond in a metal setting.

Spring Ring Clasp: This popular clasp features a small metal ring with a gap that can be opened and closed by a spring-powered lever.  This ring attaches to a metal ring with no gap on the opposite end of the chain.

Step-Cut: A way in which diamonds are cut.  Step-cut diamonds feature rows of facets positioned in a step-like fashion.  Most step-cut diamonds have four sides and a rectangular shape, such as emerald or baguette diamonds.

Sterling Silver: A durable jewelry metal consisting of at least 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy.

Supreme-Fit™: A Supreme-Fit™ band is heavier than other bands making it more durable.  It also is contoured on the inside for a more comfortable fit.

Symmetry: The precision of a diamond's cut.

Sterling Silver: An alloy that is 925 parts pure silver and 75 parts copper. Often marked 925 on the jewelry piece.

South sea pearl: A natural or cultured pearl, usually having a yellow or gold body color.

Setting: There are numerous kinds of settings, including bezel, channel, collet, and pave.